Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events

Introduction. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the main complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It affects about one third of people with diabetes in their lifetime and is the leading cause of end-stage renale disease worldwide. CKD may manifest as persistent proteinuria or reduced glomerular filtration rate and, since the earliest stages, is associated with an increased risk of death, mainly from cardiovascular causes. While international data indicate a reduction of microalbuminuria incidence, a decrease of glomerular filtration is growing but much less investigated as a risk factor

Aims. The RIACE study has been designed to evaluate the relationship between reduction in glomerular filtration rate and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes

Type of study. No-profit, multi-center longitudinal observational study

Population. Cohort of 15.933 patients followed for 10 years

Centers. 19 Italian diabetes centers

Promoter. SID, Italian Society of Diabetology

Funding. SID Research Foundation

Status. Ongoing study

Bibliography:

  1. Pugliese G, Solini A, Bonora E, Fondelli C, Orsi E, Nicolucci A, Penno G; RIACE Study Group. Chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes: lessons from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014;24:815-22.
  2. Penno G, Solini A, Bonora E, Fondelli C, Orsi E, Zerbini G, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Gruden G, Laviola L, Nicolucci A, Pugliese G; Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) study, group. Gender differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors, treatments and complications in patients with type 2 diabetes: the RIACE Italian multicentre study. J Intern Med. 2013;274:176-91.
  3. Penno G, Solini A, Bonora E, Fondelli C, Orsi E, Zerbini G, Morano S, Cavalot F, Lamacchia O, Laviola L, Nicolucci A, Pugliese G; Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events Study Group. HbA1c variability as an independent correlate of nephropathy, but not retinopathy, in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Renal  Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian multicenter study. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:2301-10.
  4. Penno G, Solini A, Zoppini G, Orsi E, Zerbini G, Trevisan R, Gruden G, Cavalot F, Laviola L, Morano S, Nicolucci A, Pugliese G; Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Study Group. Rate and determinants of association between advanced retinopathy and chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian multicenter study. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:2317-23.
  5. Pugliese G, Solini A, Zoppini G, Fondelli C, Zerbini G, Vedovato M, Cavalot F, Lamacchia O, Buzzetti R, Morano S, Nicolucci A, Penno G; Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Study Group. High prevalence of advanced retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012;98:329-37.
  6. Solini A, Penno G, Bonora E, Fondelli C, Orsi E, Arosio M, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Cignarelli M, Andreozzi F, Nicolucci A, Pugliese G; Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Study Group. Diverging association of reduced glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with coronary and noncoronary events in patients with type 2 diabetes: the renal insufficiency  and cardiovascular events (RIACE) Italian multicenter study. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:143-9.
  7. Penno G, Solini A, Bonora E, Fondelli C, Orsi E, Zerbini G, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Gruden G, Cavalot F, Cignarelli M, Laviola L, Morano S, Nicolucci A, Pugliese G; Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Study Group. Clinical significance of nonalbuminuric renal impairment in type 2 diabetes. J Hypertens. 2011;29:1802-9.
  8. Pugliese G, Solini A, Bonora E, Orsi E, Zerbini G, Giorgino F, Cavalot F, Pontiroli AE, Baroni MG, Morano S, Nicolucci A, Penno G. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation provides a better definition of cardiovascular burden associated with CKD than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study formula in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis. 2011;218:194-9.
  9. Pugliese G, Solini A, Fondelli C, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Nicolucci A, Penno G; Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Study Group. Reproducibility of albuminuria in type 2 diabetic subjects. Findings from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26:3950-4.